The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 marked the first large-scale use of posters to bolster support for a military action.
Discover a sampling of photos of the Residential Schools of Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
War diaries—records held at Library and Archives (LAC)—are daily accounts of First World War units’ “actions in the field.” They provide the most complete, first-hand record of how and where individual units were deployed and the wartime experiences of their members.
Searching War Diaries
To search the war diaries, use Image Search, a great, fast and easy way to view and consult these digitized records. Tips for searching specific diaries are available on our How to Search for War Diaries section; using keywords will also help you narrow down your search. For example, here are the search results for the diaries of the famous “Van Doos,” better known as the 22nd Battalion. We used the search terms war diaries 22nd battalion and selected “Textual material” in the “Type of material” drop-down menu.
Finding Related Materials
After consulting a unit’s diaries, redo the search you just performed, but this time leave out war diaries, and in the “Type of material” drop-down menu, select the default “All.” Here are the search results for the 22nd Battalion. Your results will still include the war diaries, but you will also see photographs, works of art and other documents related to your search term, provided that it appears in the title of these documents.
Enjoy searching and exploring the digitized materials that we have to offer!
Library and Archives Canada is releasing its latest podcast episode, Sign Me Up: CEF Files, 1914–1918.
Archivist Marcelle Cinq-Mars and genealogy consultant Sara Chatfield from Library and Archives Canada join us to talk about the service files of over 640,000 enlisted men and women of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. We explore the service files of these men and women to find out the types of documents that are found in them, their research value, and how they ended up at Library and Archives Canada.
Subscribe to our podcast episodes using RSS or iTunes, or just tune in at: Podcast – Discover Library and Archives Canada: Your History, Your Documentary Heritage.
For more information, please contact us at email@example.com.
The convenience of the sticky note cannot be beat… the variety of sizes and colours allows us to organize and place our notes and thoughts exactly where we want them. They are used in offices, homes, schools—I only wish I held the patent!
There are strong arguments, however, against their use in libraries and archives. Between 1988 and 1989, when conservation scientists at the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration first tested sticky notes, they found that an adhesive residue remains on the surface of the paper that comes into contact with the note (even if the note is placed and removed immediately), that the adhesive can remove electrostatic images (that is, printing ink), and that the dye in the note can run if exposed to water. A more recent repeat of the testing confirmed these findings, showing that most of the note adhesives will stain over time.
The following images show the results of a highly unscientific test conducted at Library and Archives Canada. Although the results are startling, they are not surprising.
1. This is a good book—I will need to reference this chapter later…
2. “Goodness, I’ve heard about what light can do to colours. That really faded in a short time.”
3. “Uh oh… I was not expecting THAT… this didn’t even get wet.”
So, that’s why sticky notes are not approved for use with collection materials, not even for temporary use!
Remember, please keep sticky notes away from collection materials, and continue to contribute to the long-term preservation of Canada’s documentary heritage.
Our project partner, Canadiana.org, recently added the following digitized microfilms to the Héritage website. Please note that the titles have been translated for convenience, but the records are still in the language of origin. Searching in the original language will improve search results.
[Governor General] Numbered Files
1903 Headquarters Central Registry, subject files
Alexander W. Wright Papers
Archibald Lampman: manuscripts, notebooks
Auditor General of Canada: Auditor General of Public Accounts of Lower Canada, Board of Audit and Audit Office
Baby Collection and Finding Aid
Bank of Vancouver Liquidation
Barbara Ann Scott – Black Scrapbook, 1949-1950
Benjamin F. Craig Fonds
Blodwen Davies Collection
Bonds and securities, Upper and Lower Canada, Province of Canada and Canada
Boucher de La Bruère family fonds
Brown and Gilmore, printers
Cabinet War Committee: minutes and documents
Canada. Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations
Canada. Royal Commission on Energy. Submissions (Vol. 1-24)
Canadian Amateur Hockey Association
Canadian Army Courts Martial documents
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: Minutes, agenda books and working papers of the Board of Directors
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: Office of the Secretary of the Board of Directors
Canadian Lung Association fonds
Canadian Military Headquarters, London
Canadian Military Headquarters, London (CMHQ), Files Block No. 55, includes index at beginning of reel
Canadian National Railways: Central Region Law Department, regional office records
Canadian Radio Television and Telecommunications Commission: Records of public hearings
Canadian Radio Television and Telecommunications Commission: Records of public hearings in Calgary, Moncton, Corner Brook, Hull, Ste. Foy, Montreal, Saskatoon, Toronto and Vancouver
Canadian Tuberculosis Association: Papers
Canadian Women’s Press Club: Clippings, scrapbooks and other printed matter
Census of the township of Augusta
Census of the City of Montreal, 1831
Census returns 1842: Canada West
Central registry files created by the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch
Charlottetown, P.E.I. Shipping Registers
Civil aircraft registration, inspection and operation files – 5008 block
Civil Secretary’s records relating to the administration of justice for Quebec, Lower Canada and Canada East
CNR Grand Trunk chairmans’ letterbooks
Command reports of the Adjutant General of the Army
Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (MG 28, IV I)
Co-operative Press Association: New Releases
Correspondence [from John Galt Fonds]
Correspondence from the Secretary to Post Office Inspectors – Letterbooks – British Columbia, Halifax, Toronto, Charlottetown, Montreal, Quebec, Vancouver and Saint John
Department of Agriculture: Office of the Director General of Public Health, 1889-1912
Department of External Affairs: “1939 Series” Central Registry files
Department of External Affairs: “1939 Series” Central Registry files: Box List, 1909-1939
Department of External Affairs: “1939 Series” Central Registry files: Index, 1909-1939
Department of Finance: central registry records
Department of Indian Affairs: Blackfoot Agency, Peigan Agency, Queen Charlotte Agency
Department of Indian Affairs: Census records
Department of Indian Affairs: Departmental letterbooks
Department of Indian Affairs: Headquarters central registry system: First series and thousand series
Department of Indian Affairs: Headquarters central registry system: red series
Department of Indian Affairs: Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch
Department of Indian Affairs: Office of the Civil Secretary in the Province of Canada
Department of Indian Affairs: Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
Department of Indian Affairs: School files series
Department of Indian Affairs: The Pas Agency: letterbooks
Department of Indian Affairs: Toronto office of the Central Superintendency: letterbooks
Department of Militia and Defence: Yukon Garrison, nominal rolls and paylists
Department of Militia and Defence: 1903 Army Central Registry, subject files
Department of Militia and Defence: Contracts Branch letterbooks, 1895-1912
Department of Militia and Defence: Correspondence of the Deputy Minister’s office
Department of Militia and Defence: Register of correspondence of the Deputy Minister’s office, 1867-1903
Department of Militia and Defence: Special Forces nominal rolls and paylists
Department of Militia and Defence: Yukon Mortar Machine Gun Batteries
Department of National Defence: Army Historical Section, Index to Army records, volume 1 to 7000A
Department of Public Works: Commissioners for the Lachine Canal
Department of Public Works: Lachine Canal Survey
Department of Public Works: Railway Branch Records
Department of Public Works: Registered correspondence, 1859-1879
Department of Railways and Canals: Canal Branch: Office of the Chief Engineer of Canals
Department of Railways and Canals: Superintending Engineer of the Rideau Canal: Letterbooks
Department of Railways and Canals: Records related to Welland Canal
Department of Railways and Canals: Records related to the St. Lawrence Canals
Department of the Interior: Dominion Lands Branch: North-West Territories, Metis scrip applications
Department of the Interior: Dominion Lands Branch: North-West Territories, Index to Metis scrip applications
Department of Trade and Commerce: from the 1961 central registry system
Department of Transport: Records 1897 – 1947 (Register of Wrecks)
Diamond Jenness: hand-written diaries and typescript of diaries, 1913-1916
Directorate of Internment Operations
Emily Carr fonds
Finding aid for the land records (RG 1) of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and Canada
France. Archives nationales, Section moderne: Série F15. Hospices et secours
France. Colonial Archives: A Series, Actes du pouvoir souverain
France. Colonial Archives: B Series, outgoing mail
France. Colonial archives: C11 G Series
France. Colonial archives: Census for the Île Royal and Île Saint-Jean, G1 Series
France. Colonial archives: Census of Canada, G1 Series, 1685-1739
France. Departmental archives of Charente-Maritime fonds: B Series, Courts and jurisdictions
France. Departmental archives of Île-et-Villaine (Rennes)
G.E. Nares’ journal
G.M. Dawson: Geological Field Notebooks, inventory and finding aid
General pre-Confederation Indian Department accounts
Geological Survey of Canada: central registry
George Strong Nares journal
Great Britain Colonial Office. 384 passenger lists. Finding Aid 647
Great Britain War Office records, Secretary of War: General outward correspondence, 1756-1767
Great Britain. Colonial Office: emigration, original correspondence (CO 384)
Great Britain. War Office: campaign medals (WO 100)
Haldimand papers from the British Library
House of Commons sessional records
I.B. Records of the Canadian Command: correspondence of the Commanding Royal Engineer: special credits, 1867-1869
Indian Affairs, Annuity Paylists
Indian Affairs, Lieutenant-Governor’s Office, Upper Canada: Early Correspondence
Indian Affairs, Lower Canada, Civil Control: Governor’s General Office, correspondence
Indian and Inuit Affairs Program: Battleford Agency, Blackfoot Agency, Blood Agency, Cowichan Agency and Peigan Agency
Indian Land Records, Wiarton Land Office correspondence
Intelligence, sighting of unknown objects
International Aviation Directorate
Jacob Keefer’s journal
Jacques-Henri Fabien collection: Genealogical notes, and index cards
John Maclean fonds
John Maclean: Letterbooks, 1884-1897
John Neilson and family, 1666-1912
Journal de quelques traversées de l’Atlantique
Lawrence Ermatinger: Letterbook with index
Letterbooks created and/or maintained by The Pas Agency
Log Book of H.M.S. Pegasus
Loring Cheney Christie fonds and Finding aid no. 189
Lorris Elijah Borden: diary and rough notes
Lower Canada Land Papers
Lunenburg and Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Register of shipping, inwards and outwards
McGill study of Expo ‘67
Montreal Saint-Sulpice Seminary fonds: Series II
National Capital Commission: Strategic Planning and Information Management Branch
National Library of France. Manuscript department: Clairambault Collection
Naturalization certificates from the Upper and Lower Canada, the Province of Canada and Canada
Neilson collection with a memorial kept by Brown & Gilmore, August 1763 to July 1774
Nominal rolls and paylists for the Volunteer Militia
Norman Bethune collection
Office of the Deputy Minister of Finance
Office of the Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs: Correspondence and letterbooks
Office of the Governor General in Lower Canada: records relating to Indian affairs, 1801-1815
Office of the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs
Office of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs: General office records, 1795-1796
Office records of the Clerk of the Councils
Ontario Local Records: Perth Military Settlement, 1816-1822
Outgoing correspondence of the office of the Deputy-Inspector General and Deputy Minister of Finance
Parish archives for Richelieu County
Parish archives for Saint-Pierre de Sorel: baptisms, marriages and burials
Perth [Ontario] Military Settlement fonds
Peter Hunter collection and papers
Peter Robinson Collection
Port of Saint-Servan Archives
Post Office Department: Divisional Inspectors: Reports
Post Office Department: Transportation Branch: Mail service contract registers, 1839-1980
Post Office Inspectors’ Reports – Halifax, Charlottetown, Saint John and British Columbia
Post Office registry systems: Duplex numeric classification system
Post Office war series, 1939-1945
Post Office: Private Letterbooks, 1891-1892
Prime Minister’s General Correspondence – Nominal card index 1976
Privy Council Office: Cabinet conclusions
Provincial Secretary, Correspondence, Canada East
Public Works registers of all incoming and outgoing correspondence arranged by subject number
Quebec and Lower Canada: Census rolls and related records
Quebec Gazette: Finding Aid 1807, card index
Quebec Gazette: Index, 1764-1823
Rat Portage Inspectorate
Rat Portage Inspectorate: Incoming correspondence, 1880-1882
Rat Portage Inspectorate: Incoming correspondence, band complaints and band estimates
Records from the Office of the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs: Letterbooks
Records of entry: ship notifications of arrival, 1865-1922
Records of the Rat Portage Inspectorate of the Department of Indian Affairs: Blottercopy letterbook, 1881-1885
Records relating to charges against J.A.N. Provencher
Report no. 1 of the Committee on Canadian Defence, 1898
Richard Bedford Bennett: Finding aid 434
Royal Canadian Air Force: operations record books
Royal Canadian Air Force: third file classification system and central registry
Royal Canadian Mounted Police: B Division journals
Royal Canadian Mounted Police: Yukon daily journals and records
Royal Commission on Indian Affairs for the Province of British Columbia
Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations fonds
Royal Commission to Inquire into the Disorders at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Vicinity thereof, during a Celebration of the Declaration of Victory over Germany on the 7th and 8th May, 1945
Royal Commission to Inquire into the Immigration of Italian Labourers to Montreal and the Alleged Fraudulent Practices of Employment Agencies fonds
Sir Charles Tupper: Political correspondence, letters received, 1840-1915 and Finding aid
Sir Isaac Brock
Sir Lomer Gouin: Correspondence and Notes
Subject, policy and case files in the First Central Registry series of the Immigration Program, 1892-1950
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation: National Council and National Executive, 1932-1960
The John Galt Papers
Toronto District Labour Council: Minutes
Toronto Trades and Labour Council: Minutes
Transport Canada: Legal Services Division, legal documents (1936-1982)
Treasury Board (Committee of the Privy Council) correspondence: letterbooks
Treasury Board Secretariat
Treasury Fonds: T 28. Various Out-letters
Underhill Papers: Research files, Canada, Edward Blake
United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Piping Fitting Industry, Local 46, Toronto
United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel fonds: finding aid no. 285
Unpublished sessional papers, 6th Session, 12th Parliament, 12 Jan. 1916 – 18 May 1916
Unpublished sessional papers, 7th Session, 12th Parliament, 18 Jan. 1917 – 20 Sept. 1917
Unpublished sessional papers, 1st Session, 13th Parliament, 18 Mar. 1918 – 24 May 1918
Unpublished sessional papers, 2nd Session, 13th Parliament, 20 Feb. 1919 – 7 July 1919
Unpublished sessional papers, 3rd Session, 13th Parliament, 1 Sept. 1919 – 10 Nov. 1919
Unpublished sessional papers, 4th Session, 13th Parliament, 26 Feb. 1920 – 1 July 1920
Unpublished sessional papers, 5th Session, 13th Parliament, 14 Feb. 1921 – 4 June 1921
Unpublished sessional papers, 1st Session, 14th Parliament, 8 March 1922 – 28 June 1922
Unpublished sessional papers, 2nd Session, 14th Parliament, 31 Jan. 1923 – 30 June 1923
Unpublished sessional papers, 2nd Session, 22nd Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 3rd Session, 22nd Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 4th Session, 22nd Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 5th Session, 22nd Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 1st Session, 23rd Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 1st Session, 24th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 2nd Session, 24th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 3rd Session, 24th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 4th Session, 24th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 5th Session, 24th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 1st Session, 25th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 1st Session, 26th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 2nd Session, 26th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 3rd Session, 26th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 1st Session, 27th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 2nd Session, 27th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 1st Session, 28th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 2nd Session, 28th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 3rd Session, 28th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 4th Session, 28th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 1st Session, 29th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 2nd Session, 29th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 1st Session, 30th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 2nd Session, 30th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 3rd Session, 30th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 4th Session, 30th Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 1st Session, 31st Parliament
Unpublished sessional papers, 1st Session, 32nd Parliament
Vilhjalmur Stefansson: Canadian Arctic expedition diaries, 1914-1918
Wartime Prices & Trade Board
Western Land Grants
Winnipeg General Strike scrapbooks
World War I war charities: Correspondence with High Commissioner in Britain
Y.M.C.A. of Canada
Most of today’s digital cameras come with a simple, point-and-shoot mode for creating panoramic images.
But back in the days of film cameras, creating a panoramic photograph meant either spending hours in the darkroom, painstakingly stitching images together by overlapping exposures onto the finished photo paper or buying an expensive panoramic format camera.
A new exhibition at the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa showcases panoramic photographs of Canadian cities from the 19th century. These images, which come from the collections of Library and Archives Canada, document how early photographers used this wide format to capture and celebrate the rapid urban development of their time.
Panoramic photographs exaggerated a town’s size and accentuated its landmarks. This made them useful promotional images and much sought-after travel souvenirs.
The following image is part of a rare panorama of Toronto from 1856. The full panorama (consisting of 12 images) was intended to be used in the city’s bid to be named the capital of the United Canadas. At the time these images were created, photography was a cumbersome and expensive practice.
To take this view of the city, the photographer had to lug heavy equipment and chemicals to the rooftop of the Rossin House Hotel. The slow emulsion and wet collodion process required long exposures, which resulted in blurred movement and rendered busy streets into seemingly quiet, deserted spaces.
In 1887, Canadian photographer John Connon patented a panoramic camera, which permitted a continuous, near 360-degree exposure. Capturing images on waxed paper negatives, Connon’s camera rotated on a turntable.
Connon probably used his new camera to take this view of the Canadian Pacific Railway as it passed through the town of Fergus, Ontario.
In addition to being used to capture urban development, panoramic photography was used to take photographs of landscapes, significant events and portraits of large groups.
In a speech delivered in 1936, Prime Minister Mackenzie King famously declared, “If some countries have too much history, we have too much geography.” Canada is a relatively young country whose history is inextricably linked to those of countries an ocean away. So how do you try to capture a sense of the past through records when they are held in the archives and libraries of the United Kingdom and France, and how can these records be made available to Canadians?
A concerted effort to document and promote our past started even before Confederation. Citizens and members of organizations like the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec (LHSQ) travelled to Europe to scour records in British and French archives for any mention of Canada. Even Louis-Joseph Papineau, while in exile in France following the Lower Canada Rebellion, identified and copied important records highlighting Canada’s colonial past. When the Dominion Archives was founded in 1872, research increased exponentially. By the time the first Dominion Archivist Douglas Brymner died in 1902, 3,000 volumes of transcriptions of records relating to Canada’s colonial history had been produced. In 1905, a permanent team responsible for the transcription of records was established in Europe. Brymner’s wish had been for Canada to possess those records that bore witness to vital moments in the country’s founding and administration by foreign powers. Over the next century, his vision was realized.
A More Concerted Effort
The success of the copying program abroad was heavily influenced by events of the day. In the 1920s, the economic prosperity of Canada meant that copying increased dramatically because a larger number of copyists, such as locals, working or retired archivists, and Canadians abroad, could be hired. In the 1930s, the copying program shrank, and during the Second World War, copying in France ceased and all transcriptions that hadn’t been sent to Canada yet were kept in the care of the Swiss and American embassies in Paris throughout the war. With the introduction of microfilm and microphotography, the copying process became easier, faster, and more efficient. In a century, more than 450,000 pages were transcribed. From the time that microfilming was introduced in the 1950s to the end of the copying program at the beginning of the 21st century, approximately 2.5 million pages were microfilmed.From the very first trip abroad by members of the LHSQ in 1835 to the end of LAC’s copying program in the early 2000s, copyists worked diligently in the archives and libraries of France and the United Kingdom to recover documents that help us better understand our past. Many of these copied items can be found on the Héritage website.
Today marks the 200th birthday of one of Canada’s most important historical figures, Sir George-Étienne Cartier, a leading Father of Confederation. Cartier was born on September 6, 1814 in Sainte-Antoine-sur-Richelieu, Lower Canada. He studied law and started practising in 1835; however, politics soon became his passion. His entrance into the world of politics was anything but uneventful, as he played a role in the Lower Canadian Rebellion of 1837 and fought in the Battle of Saint-Denis. Cartier subsequently spent a year in exile in Vermont but pled for leniency and returned to Montreal in 1839.
In 1848 Cartier was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada and shortly after was appointed to Cabinet. From 1857 to 1862 he served as co-premier of the Province of Canada with Sir John A. Macdonald following his coalition with the Upper Canadian Conservatives. It was in this period that Macdonald and Cartier started working together and began to garner support for Confederation in an attempt to put an end to political instability.
Cartier played a pivotal role in gaining French-Canadian support for Confederation. He argued that francophone interests would be best preserved in a federation of provinces. When Confederation finally came about on July 1, 1867, John A. Macdonald became the first Prime Minister and Cartier the first Minister of Militia and Defence.
Cartier passed away on May 20, 1873. His death deeply affected his close friend, John A. Macdonald, who proposed that a statue be erected in Cartier’s honour. It was sculpted by Louis-Philippe Hébert and unveiled in 1885. This was the first statue to be placed on Parliament Hill and it can still be seen today. Cartier left his mark on generations of Canadians. The centenary of his birthday in 1914 was marked by large celebrations and another monument was erected, this time in Montreal. Cartier’s Montreal home was designated a National Historic Site.
While the majority of Cartier’s papers were destroyed, Library and Archives Canada does have several important records, including a family photo album, postcards, and some correspondence that took place during his period as Minister of Militia and Defence. We also have several letters written by Cartier to Macdonald, found in the Sir John A. Macdonald collection (archived).
To find out more about George-Étienne Cartier and his role in Confederation:
Library and Archives Canada (LAC) is releasing its latest podcast episode, William Redver Stark: The Soldier and the Artist.
Art Archivist Geneviève Morin and Conservator Lynn Curry from LAC discuss the William Redver Stark fonds. They explore William Redver Stark’s background, his time as a soldier during the First World War, and the artwork he produced, specifically the 14 sketchbooks included in his fonds.
Subscribe to our podcast episodes using RSS or iTunes, or just tune in at: Podcast – Discover Library and Archives Canada: Your History, Your Documentary Heritage.
For more information, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.