140 Years Strong: The Royal Canadian Mounted Police

The year 2013 marks the 140th anniversary of the establishment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). The Act allowing for the provision of a police force for the Canadian North-West was given Royal Assent by Queen Victoria on May 23, 1873 (to view, select page 110 on the drop down menu from the link). The North West Mounted Police (NWMP) was formally established by a Dominion Order in Council on August 30th of the same year (RG 2, Privy Council Office, Series A-1-a, volume 314, Order in Council 1873–1134). The Canadian Parliament voted to merge the NWMP and the Dominion Police, a federal police force with jurisdiction in eastern Canada in 1919. On February 1, 1920, when the legislation came into effect, this combined police force became the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Black-and-white image of an officer in uniform sporting a western-style Stetson, seated on a horse, with the Canadian Rockies in the background.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (silhouette) Source

Colour photograph of an officer posing with a dog in a field.

RCMP officer posing with dog Source

Library and Archives Canada (LAC) holds many records that document the numerous challenges the RCMP faced in maintaining law and order in the vast regions of Canada.

Available online at LAC:

  • NWMP Personnel Records, 1873–1904 (archived)
    The files of Samuel (Sam) Benfield Steele (RG18, Volume 10037, File: O.40) and Arthur Murray Jarvis (RG18, Volume 10037, File O.104) make for particularly interesting reading.

For consultation on site:

For more photos, visit our Flickr album.

2 thoughts on “140 Years Strong: The Royal Canadian Mounted Police

  1. Pingback: John Nash – The First RCMP Constable to Die in the Line of Duty | Library and Archives Canada Blog

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