As the last major Belgian city in Allied hands during the First World War, Ypres provided a defensive position from which to protect French ports on the English Channel. It had to be held at all costs. Canadian forces were instrumental in numerous exchanges and battles in both the city and the surrounding area. Images of Canada at Ypres now on Flickr
In the first week of April 1915, members of the 1st Canadian Division, including many of the earliest volunteers of the war, were moved north from Bethune, France to the active section of the line near Ypres, Belgium. A medieval Belgian city, Ypres was the scene of one of the war’s earliest and bloodiest battles in 1914 and had assumed great strategic importance. When the front stabilized in November 1914, the Allied lines bulged out around the city into the German line, forming a salient, surrounded on three sides by higher ground.
On April 22, 1915, in an effort to eliminate the salient, Germany became the first nation to use chemical weapons, releasing over 160 tons of chlorine gas across the Allied front. Members of the 1st Canadian Division, who had been in their trenches barely a week, found themselves desperately trying to defend a 6.5-kilometre gap in the Allied lines as the French division to their left crumbled in the face of Germany’s new weapon. The chlorine gas clung to the ground and filled the trenches, forcing the troops to climb out and into the path of heavy machine-gun and artillery fire.
German troops moved forward but, having planned only a limited offensive and lacking adequate protection against their own chemical weapons, they were unable to exploit the break in the line. Throughout the night and the subsequent days, Canadian and British troops struggled to maintain the line. Canadians mounted a counterattack at Kitchener’s Wood (derived from Bois-de-Cuisinères) and endured the terrible fighting at St. Julian: their Canadian-made rifles jamming in the mud, and soldiers violently sick and gasping for air. Somehow, they managed to hold the line until reinforcements arrived on April 28. The losses were tremendous: 6,035 Canadians (or one in three soldiers) became casualties by the time the 1st Canadian Division was relieved. This toll among an army whose members had almost all been civilians just months prior.
At Second Ypres, the Canadians were initiated into the horrors of modern warfare, and from this moment on they would continue to develop into a highly respected formation in the Allied forces.
From April 23 to 25, as part of our series, First World War Centenary: Honouring Canada’s Victoria Cross Recipients, we will tell the stories of Lance-Corporal Frederick Fisher, Lieutenant Edward Donald Bellew, Company Sergeant-Major Frederick William Hall, and Captain Francis Alexander Caron Scrimger.
View the Flickr album – Canada at Ypres
In this part of the sketchbook examination, we are exploring two additional facets of page mapping. The first part will look at impressions left from the artist’s instruments on the drawing paper; the second will examine the paper and the bookbinding techniques in the sketchbooks.
When an artist is drawing or sketching, his or her tools frequently leave deep impressions on the pages. These are great visual indicators that help to reposition out-of-order pages. The indentations on the paper surface appear as a repetitive pattern of a mark from one page to the next.
Other examples of impressions left on a paper surface are the binding materials used by the bookbinder. For example, after a text block is sewn, the bookbinder will apply an adhesive on the spine. He or she may apply too much adhesive, which then oozes through some of the sewing holes, forming a drop of glue inside the central folio. Upon drying and hardening, the drop can make an impression onto the adjacent sheet of paper.
The sewing tapes and threads used in a binding can also leave impressions on the pages. The sewing tapes are glued underneath the paper of the inside covers. They often leave a repeating mirror impression of the tape, which helps determine the order of pages near the front or the back of a sketchbook. The sewing thread impressions found on detached pages also provide a good clue as to which sheets of paper are located in the centre folio of a section.
Page and paper analysis
A number of the Stark sketchbooks have soft, gradual convex and concave warping that extends across or along the edges of pages. This cockling happens when sketchbooks are in a high humidity environment. Here, the humidity causes a permanent distortion of the pages.
One of the sketchbooks was distorted along the edges of three sections. The undulating edges matched each other perfectly only when the pages were placed in the correct position. This gave us the verification needed for proper orientation and sequencing of the pages.
Paper can also reveal other clues to determine page order. One way to confirm page order is to look closely at the binding techniques, which leave very useful evidence.
When pages are first folded into sections, groups of three to eight sheets of paper are folded together. The folio on the inside of the section naturally has a sharper fold than each subsequent folio in the section. The folds become less sharp and incrementally wider as the number of folios per section increases. An examination of the fold of each half or complete folio can help determine the likely location within the sections: first, or centre of folio, second, third, fourth position, etc. An exact measurement of each page confirms the position as well.
Rounding and backing is another binding technique that provides an indication of page sequence. The technique is usually accomplished by using a hammer to shape a previously sewn and glued spine. Rounding and backing results in a slight bend of the sections close to the spine; the sections near the front of the book bend slightly toward the front; the central sections are fairly straight; and the sections near the back of the book bend slightly toward the back. Rounding and backing was clearly visible in the Stark sketchbooks and thus a helpful indication of the sequence of sections and pages.
In our next instalment on page mapping, we will look at the dates that are scattered throughout the sketchbooks and how they match up with other sources of information at Library and Archives Canada.
On April 16, 1821, midshipman Robert Hood made the last entry in his journal. A 24-year-old British Royal Navy petty officer under the command of Captain John Franklin, Hood participated in an expedition to chart the Coppermine River as part of the search for the Northwest Passage. Hood’s final journal entry ended his descriptions of the daily activities as the group of British sailors, Canadian voyageurs, Aboriginal guides and interpreters trekked from York Factory to Cumberland House and then on to Fort Enterprise and the Coppermine River. Although the journal entries discontinued, Hood continued to note weather conditions and navigational data in other expedition volumes, and to produce at least one more visual record.
Library and Archives Canada (LAC) is pleased to announce the recent purchase of four watercolours from a Hood family descendant.
Portraits of the Esquimeaux Interpreters from Churchill Employed by the North Land Expedition is likely the final surviving work of Robert Hood. Completed in May 1821, the watercolour depicts Tattannoeuck (Augustus) and Hoeootoerock (Junius).
Three other watercolours were acquired that were painted during the previous year while the expedition wintered at Cumberland House.
In January 1820, he drew a mink as it dipped a paw into the water along a rocky shore and a cross fox just as it caught a mouse in the snow.
Two months later, Hood set out on a trek to the Pasquia Hills where he encountered a group of Cree. Invited into their tent, he recorded with extraordinary detail this watercolour, The Interior of a Southern Indian Tent [original title]. This image would be the basis of the print, Interior of a Cree Tent, which appeared in Captain John Franklin’s account, Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the Years 1819, 20, 21 and 22.Unfortunately Robert Hood would not live to see his paintings published in Franklin’s account. Plagued by horrendous weather and insufficient supplies, the expedition resorted to eating lichens to survive. By early October 1821, it was clear that Robert Hood had become too weak from hunger to continue the journey. He was left behind with two British participants, while the others set off for Fort Enterprise in search of food and supplies. One of the voyageurs, Michel Terohaute, changed his mind and left Franklin’s group, returning to the Hood camp. On October 23, 1821, while the two other men were out searching for food, Terohaute shot and killed Robert Hood. Captain John Franklin managed to retrieve Hood’s journal and watercolours, which were given to Hood’s sister and distributed among her grandchildren. LAC was fortunate to acquire these four previously unknown watercolours which document a key expedition in Canada’s Arctic history.
- The Sir John Franklyn Expedition blog article has a list of other arctic resources
- Sir John Franklyn Expedition Flickr album
- Canadian arctic expedition Flickr album
- Sir George Back Flickr album
As of today, 143,613 of 640,000 files are available online via our Soldiers of the First World War: 1914–1918 database. Please visit the Digitization of the Canadian Expeditionary Force Service Files page for more details on the digitization project.
Library and Archives Canada is digitizing the service files systematically, from box 1 to box 10686, which roughly corresponds to alphabetical order. Please note that over the years, the content of some boxes has had to be moved and, you might find that the file you want, with a surname that is supposed to have been digitized, is now located in another box that has not yet been digitized. The latest digitized box is #2057, which corresponds to the surname “Cussons”. Please check the database regularly for new additions and if you still have questions after checking the database, you may contact us directly at 1-866-578-7777 for more assistance.
The word “pest” certainly has many uses, but, at Library and Archives Canada, it refers to any of a number of creatures that can pose a threat to library and archival collections. Many insects like to feed on substances found in documents, photographs and books, such as cellulose, starch and glue. And mice like to shred paper for their nests. Pests can work very quickly, and in a short time precious documents can be irreversibly damaged. It is important, therefore, to be aware of such pests and to know what to do to prevent them.
An improperly disposed of muffin wrapper can provide enough nourishment to sustain a population of 9 female mice to produce litters of 5 to 10 pups each. Proper cleaning of areas where food is consumed makes the area less attractive to mice. Having garbage receptacles with tight-fitting lids is also a good deterrent.
One of the ways to discourage the pests listed in the table below is by controlling humidity within the facility, either by improving an existing heating, ventilation and air conditioning system, setting up fans in high-humidity areas, or installing weather stripping and door seals on exterior doors, etc. Installing dehumidifiers in areas of high humidity can also be very beneficial. It is imperative to always clean and remove any mould or mildew in areas containing excessive moisture. Careful cleaning and good general housekeeping will also contribute to minimizing pest problems in a facility. In areas where there is a pest problem, vacuum in addition to sweeping. If the problem persists, consider taking these additional actions: seal cracks in foundations, concrete or floors, repair any leaks from pipes, such as sinks, roof drains, etc.
The top five most unwanted creepy crawlers in libraries and archives
*See damage below
Examples of insect damage
There’s been a revolution in cataloguing! Since 2010, RDA (Resource Description and Access) has been the new international standard for description. It was developed over many years through the cooperation of institutions such as Library and Archives Canada (LAC), the Library of Congress, the British National Library, the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, and other national and international committees (LAC employees sit on the Canadian Committee on Cataloguing, for example). Implementation of RDA began at LAC in late 2012 and is still ongoing, involving the entire cataloguing section. This has included hundreds of hours of training sessions, meetings, individual research and reading, and informal team discussions and consultations as we have to rethink a lot of our policies and practices to adapt to the new philosophies and rules for description represented in RDA.
So, what’s so different about RDA?
There have always been standards and rules for description of course. But the rules we were using were developed before the advent of the multitude of formats that are now collected by and available in modern libraries. This has forced cataloguers to try to treat everything like a printed book. You can imagine how frustrating that was at times! On top of that, the old rules were designed to help cataloguers fit all the essential information on a 3” by 5” card that was filed in a card catalogue drawer. This meant abbreviating words, omitting non-essential information, and making decisions based on the placement of information on the physical card. Now with online catalogues, linked data, and international databases available with the click of a mouse, we need to rethink how we do things. Some of this involves physically changing how the information is presented in the catalogue record (for example, RDA eliminates abbreviations unless they appear on the item itself). Other changes focus on thinking differently about the relationships between the content, the physical item (what we call the “carrier”), and the people involved in creating both.
What hasn’t changed?
As always, our goal is to create a bibliographic record for an item that accurately and thoroughly describes both the physical item and the content it holds, and allows users of our catalogue the best possible access to the item and our collection. The employees in the cataloguing section are committed to creating useful, accurate, credible metadata that is used by libraries across the country, and in international databases. RDA may be changing the “how” of cataloguing, but not the “why!”
Subject access to Library and Archives Canada’s collection is made primarily through the use of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). A list of these headings has been actively maintained by the Library of Congress since 1898. But if the topic fits a Canadian like a warm winter toque, it is probably found in the Canadian Subject Headings (CSH) or its French equivalent in the Répertoire de vedettes-matière (RVM), published by the Bibliothèque de l’Université Laval.
CSH and RVM are designed to be used in tandem with LCSH and follow the same principles for the structuring of the headings and most of the same policies as LCSH.
The former National Library of Canada first developed a list of access points to Canadian topics not covered by the Library of Congress in 1968, to address Canadian terms and subjects from a Canadian point of view. Canadian Subject Headings have been found on the Web since 2000 in conjunction with AMICUS, Library and Archives Canada’s database of bibliographic and authority records. The list is constantly updated to reflect subjects discussed from a Canadian perspective, including those recently in the news.
The scope of Canadian Subject Headings is mostly limited to the Canadian cultural, economic, historical, literary, political and social experience. Subject areas include Canadian history, Canadian literature, Canadian government, Canadian geography, social and economic history, the Canadian legal system, Canada’s approach to second languages, bilingualism and multiculturalism, and Aboriginal or Native peoples.
Here are some examples which reflect our unique identity:
Native youth [CSH]
Jeunesse autochtone [RVM]
Native peoples—Canada—Residential schools [CSH]
Internats pour Indiens d’Amérique – Canada [RVM]
Hudson’s Bay blankets [CSH]
Couvertures de la Baie d’Hudson [RVM]
Canada—History—War of 1812 [CSH]
Canada—Histoire—1812, Guerre de [RVM]
Italian Canadians [CSH]
Canadiens d’origine italienne [RVM]
European Canadian authors [CSH]
Auteurs canadiens d’origine européenne [RVM]
Coureurs de bois [RVM]
Agriculteurs—Canada—Histoire—18e siècle [RVM]
Goods and services tax—Canada [CSH]
Taxe sur les produits et services [RVM]
Band membership [CSH]
Nationalité indienne [RVM]
Films for second language learners [CSH]
Films pour allophones [RVM]
Sugar bush—Canada [CSH]
Do you have a suggestion for a new subject heading? We welcome your ideas! Send them to the Editor, Canadian Subject Headings at: email@example.com.
As part of its commemoration of the centenary of the First World War, over the next three years we will profile each of Canada’s Victoria Cross recipients. Each profile will be published on the 100th anniversary of the day that the actions for which the recipient was awarded the Victoria Cross took place.
The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest military decoration in the Commonwealth and takes precedence over all other medals, decorations and orders. A recognition of valour in the face of the enemy, the VC can be awarded to a person of any rank of military service and to civilians under military command. So far, 98 Canadians have been awarded the Victoria Cross, beginning with Alexander Roberts Dunn who in 1854 fought in the Battle of Balaclava in the Crimean War. The Victoria Crosses were awarded to 71 Canadian soldiers during the First World War, and 16 were awarded during the Second World War. The remaining VCs were awarded to Canadians for the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (in which William Hall of Nova Scotia became the first-ever black recipient of the VC) and the South African War (1899–1902).
In 1993, the Canadian Victoria Cross was adopted in place of the British VC. The medal is identical to the British VC but the inscription is in Latin—Pro Valore—a linguistic ancestor to both English and French. The Canadian Victoria Cross has yet to be awarded.
The profile series will also include links to photographs, service papers, war diaries, and other digitized artifacts in Library and Archives Canada’s collections that help to tell the stories of the Canadians who experienced the Great War on many fronts, including the home front, and whose actions and memories shape how contemporary Canadians remember and understand the first truly global conflict.
We will begin our First World War Victoria Cross profiles with Lance-Corporal Frederick Fisher.
Canada is distinguished from most other countries by the diversity of its population. Our unique cultural, ethnic and linguistic mosaic is reflected in the wide assortment of holdings at Library and Archives Canada associated with the different ethno-cultural groups.