The United Nations declared October 11 as the International Day of the Girl Child, which recognizes the challenges that girls face each day from discrimination and abuse around the world.
Canada continues to fight for girls’ rights to equality, freedom and education.
Paul-Émile Miot, a French naval officer and photographer, entered the Naval Academy in Paris in 1843 and spent the next 49 years sailing around the world on the high seas. He spent five of those years working in Newfoundland, visiting the east coast of North America on five separate hydrographic missions between 1857 and 1862. On his first trip, he captured 40 photographs related to the cod industry and took portraits of Mi’kmaq peoples, as well as views of rivers and forests. This series is the first photographic reporting of Newfoundland using an ethnographic perspective.
After his campaign in Newfoundland, he rose through the ranks and participated in several naval campaigns to different areas of the world, all the while taking photographs. He retired from active service in 1892 and was named Curator of the Musée de la marine et de l’ethnographie at the Louvre in 1894. He died in Paris in 1900.
The origin of the game of tennis can be traced back to the 11th century in France, where it was played on an indoor court. At first, players of the game used their hands to hit the ball. Then racquets were introduced in the 15th century and were eventually popularized in England during the mid-19th century. Playing tennis on a rectangular court and serving the ball from a baseline became the standard format.
Tennis was quickly adopted in Canada during the 1870s. Within a span of 6 years, the first tennis club was formed in Toronto (1875), the first Canadian tennis tournament was held at the Montreal Cricket Club (1878), and the first indoor tennis tournament was held in Ottawa (1881). The 1880s began with clubs forming across the country in major cities followed by tennis courts cropping up in the backyards of private homes.
The Canadian Lawn Tennis Association was formed in 1890 contributing to the development of the sport and the participation of Canadians in international events, such as the Davis Cup. Canada’s tennis enthusiasts organized under the umbrella of Tennis Canada, which supports the sport from a recreational level up to international competitions. This support is one of the many reasons why tennis is so popular across the country.
Did you know that Library and Archives Canada (LAC) has a rich collection of cookbooks? Our culture and technology have shaped these books and recipes over time, and it affected our relationship with food and cooking throughout our history.
Long distance travel across Canada was initially done via rivers and lakes. Overland excursions were difficult due to the harsh terrain and thick bush that travellers encountered. Early road systems serviced the immediate areas, such as villages, towns, or larger urban settings. Many were built for military use.
Despite the terrain challenges, fees or taxes were collected from citizens and put toward road construction and maintenance. Roads began to complement waterways for the transport of people and goods. One of the earliest road types was the corduroy or skid road. Main pathways between settlements were planked with logs placed side-by-side and perpendicular to the pathway. These rudimentary roads aided travel inland during harsh weather, or on rough terrain, and opened up new settlement areas across Canada.
Firefighters have the intense job of fighting and extinguishing fires that threaten lives, property, and the environment. Their schedule is demanding and the work is dangerous, but the service they provide is crucial. Fire has been as much a danger to human life as it has been essential to advance society.
Firefighting in Canada began as a collective effort. Citizens and soldiers worked together to fight flames with water and axes. New settlements in Canada were constructed with wood, in tight quarters, leaving them vulnerable to the very fire used by settlers to heat their homes and cook their food. Firefighting evolved to deal with the threat of fire, with the first organized fire department opening in Halifax in 1754 and the first fire engine operating in Montreal in 1765.
Established towns continued to enhance their capabilities, creating volunteer firefighting companies after the 1824 Upper Canada Parliament fire. Firefighting transitioned into a career after the addition of new machinery, equipment and horses required a full-time staff. A shift toward relatively sophisticated fire protection occurred at the end of the 19th century with the introduction of improved building codes, professional fire departments, fire hydrant systems, steam fire engines and horse-drawn apparatus. Firefighting has since continued to evolve in the face of new challenges.
During the Second World War, Canadian women were mobilized to serve in the armed forces. Approximately, 50,000 women enlisted and a majority of them served with the Canadian Army. A variety of tasks were assigned to the Canadian Women’s Army Corps (CWAC) formed in 1941. These women enrolled from a sense of patriotism or a desire to see the world, no different from their male counterparts of the time.
However, they faced skepticism and harassment at home and abroad. Their perseverance coupled with wartime labour demands enabled women to work in numerous fields of work, such as mechanical and technical repairs, communications, drafting, or driving vehicles. The Canadian government and the Department of National Defence in 1943 started a recruitment drive and public relations campaign to support women contributing to the war effort. Over time their salaries increased, and public and military opinions began to change in favour of women serving in the armed forces.
The thousands of women who served their country during wartime gained new skills and expertise, confidence, and a much improved respect and support from Canadians. The CWAC was an opportunity and milestone for those choosing to step away from traditional gender roles in Canada.
Few Canadian authors have achieved the universal appeal of Lucy Maud Montgomery, whose iconic series “Anne of Green Gables” continues to resonate with book lovers of all ages.
Swimming is an important survival skill. However, it wasn’t considered a sport or leisure activity until organized competitions were held in countries like Japan in the 1600s, and eventually in Europe in the 1800s. Men’s swimming was included in the 1896 Olympic Games, and women competed in the 1912 competitions, cementing its place as a sport. Various associations around the world were created to support and promote swimming as a leisure activity and sport. Canada was no different, in this regard.
Over time, a variety of pool facilities appeared across Canada, near natural bodies of water and purpose-built ones in more populated urban centres. Examples include in Vancouver near English Bay, Toronto’s Lakeshore Drive, and Montreal’s Bain Maisonneuve and Bain Généreux. Swimming and its facilities eventually evolved into places of fitness, hygiene, leisure and community gathering.
Few dentists were available during Canada’s early colonial period. Individuals made claims of dental expertise, however, it was “buyer-beware” if someone needed care. Professional dentistry in Canada was far behind professional and medical developments in Europe at the time.
During the 1800s, Canada benefited from the arrival of dental practitioners from the United States. These professionals started a movement for better education, training and practices in the country, which sparked the first Canadian publication on dentistry, The Summum Bonum, in 1815 by L.S. Parmly based in Montréal. Eventually, medical expertise took root in Canada and various associations were formed such as the Ontario Dental Association (1867), and the Royal College of Dental Surgeons (1868).
As standards of practice and education evolved, the inclusion of dental schools into university programmes cemented dentistry’s standing in the medical professions. Dental practices and services continued to spread and became available in cities and towns across the county. Care was also provided to our soldiers outside of the country during times of conflict such as during the First and Second World Wars.