Images of Fashion Plates now on Flickr 

A black-and-white drawing of a woman wearing a gown with a plain skirt edged with five rows of velvet along the hem and a pleated bodice draped like an apron over the front. She is wearing a hat with feathers and carrying an umbrella.

The Charneville Toilette from “Le Moniteur de la Mode” (C-115935k)

Fashion plates, or prints of popular clothing trends, have been available for a long time. However, they really became popular in the 19th century due to advances in printing, increased literacy, and the rise in magazine. Fashion magazines for both women and men discussed etiquette, literature, and new style trends. An ever-growing list of magazines produced their own plates or borrowed from other magazines. Some even included sewing patterns. The plates in this album were taken from magazines published in England (The Lady’s Cabinet), France (Le Bon Ton : Journal des Modes, Journal des Dames et des Modes, Le Moniteur de la Mode, and Le Follet : Courrier des Salons), and the United States (The Season, and Peterson’s Magazine).

A colour plate of a woman in a pink dinner dress with a pleated off-the-shoulder bodice and ruffles along the hem. She is wearing a pearl hair net, and holding a fan in her gloved hand.

“Dinner Dress” from “Ladies’ Cabinet of Fashion, Music and Romance” (e010863096)

The plates are works of art in their own right. They represent changes in art throughout the century from romanticism to art deco. Producing plates for magazines often involved an artist to draw the image and an engraver to print the plate. Popular magazines were able to hire some of the best illustrators of the day. Some prints were black and white, while the more high quality examples were hand coloured after printing. Printing changed too with the colours becoming more vibrant and the lines more crisp as the technology improved.

A colour plate of a seated women wearing a long cream skirt and a green shirt patterned with cream ovals. The shirt is belted with a red scarf. She is also wearing green high heel shoes, a long pearl necklace, and rings on her fingers.

“Robe d’intérieur” [Indoor dress] from “Journal des Dames et des Modes” (C-115396k)

Many plates were separated from their magazines and are now sold separately to art collectors or other interested buyers. This is probably how they ended up in our collection. Most were found in individual art collections, or in a costume designer’s collection.

A colour plate of two women standing in a living room. One is wearing a blue dress with ruffles at the sleeves and hem. The other is wearing a striped black and grey dress with a long bustle and ruffles at the hem.

Illustrirte Frauen-Zeitung [Women’s fashion illustration] (C-115400k)

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Images of Hand Tools now on Flickr

Black-and-white photograph of a woman using a traditional wooden broad plank snow shovel to build an igloo.

Inuit girl with a broad plank snow shovel, Stefansson-Anderson Arctic Expedition, Coronation Gulf, Nunavut [PA-165738]

A hand tool is any tool that is controlled by the human hand alone. Stone Age tools fashioned from stone (sometimes wood) were used for hammering, cutting or digging.

Black-and-white photograph of a woman standing on a dirt road holding a basket full of fern leaves and a shovel on her left shoulder.

Edna Boyd with a basket of ferns and a shovel, Bala, Ontario [PA-070891]

As societies entered the Bronze Age, tools were made by casting copper and tin alloys together. These tools were sharper and harder than those made of stone.

Black-and-white photograph of a man leaning forward and swinging an ice axe to break ice.

A man using an ice axe, British Columbia [e011175725]

Black-and-white photograph of a girl holding a sledgehammer that rests on her right shoulder.

A girl with a sledgehammer [e003895283]

Iron replaced bronze during the Iron Age. These tools were even stronger and durable than their bronze counterparts. Many tools developed during this period resemble tools produced today. A small number of craftspeople manufactured these tools, which limited their spread and use by many people.
The industrial revolution enabled tools to be manufactured in factories. Greater numbers of tools could be produced using heavy machinery. This made them more accessible to the general population, lowered their price, and became more common in households.

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Images of Icebergs now on Flickr 

National Film Board photographers setting up by an iceberg (e011175885)

Icebergs are large pieces of ice that break off glaciers and float into the surrounding ocean. They can be pure white or streaked with blue and brown. Blue streaks come from melt water freezing in the cracks of the original glaciers. Brown streaks come from dust landing on the ice or erosion from the original glacier scraping the ground.

Iceberg in Hudson Strait (a045191)

The shape and size of icebergs depends on their breakage and melt patterns, as well as waves, temperature, and the ice pack around them. Common shapes include tabular, blocky, wedge, pinnacle, domed, and drydock.

An album page with five black-and-white close up shots of different types of icebergs and a shot of the ocean at sunset. The captions read, left to right, “Sunset, Baffin Bay” and “Taken at sea – Off Scott Inlet, Baffin Island.”

Views of icebergs taken at sea, off Scott Inlet, Baffin Island (e010863534)

Tabular, or flat pieces of shelf ice that break off to form ice islands, are stable enough to use as mobile research platforms, while the more irregular shapes can break apart without warning. According to the Iceberg Finder, the largest iceberg ever recorded in the Arctic was recorded in 1882 near Baffin Island

Six small sketches of different types of icebergs in pale colours with the caption: “Vanille, fraise, framboise – boum, servez froid!” [Vanilla, strawberry, raspberry—boom, serve cold!]

Vanille, fraise, framboise – boum, servez froid! [Vanilla, strawberry, raspberry—boom, serve cold!] (e008444012)

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Images of Indigenous Pipes now on Flickr

Close up portrait of a man smoking a pipe, and wearing a flat cap and round glasses.

Portrait of an Inuit man, Angmarlik, a respected leader at Qikiqtat (Kekerten) (PA-166470)

Pipe smoking was practiced by both Indigenous men and women.

Woman smoking a pipe and wearing a dress, shawl, and headwrap. She is holding the reins of a horse pulling a Red River cart.

Camp scene of a Red River cart and an Indigenous woman (e011156555)

Pipe bowls were made from ceramics or carved from hard materials such as pipestone, soapstone, wood, or corncobs. The stem was usually made of a hollowed out tube of wood. Pipes were used recreationally to smoke tobacco, or blends of aromatic plants or barks. Pipes were also used on political and ceremonial occasions. Unique metal-forged axe pipes were gifted to Indigenous chiefs and leaders.

A birch bark basket embroidered in the centre with a First Nations figure smoking a pipe, and white, red, and blue flowers on each side.

Birch bark basket with embroidered First Nations figure and pipe (e010948522)

Pipe smoking has dwindled, but the practice and symbolism still carries on as some of these pictures show.

Portrait of a woman wearing a plaid shawl and smoking a pipe.

Inuit woman wearing plaid shawl and smoking a pipe (e010692540)

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Images of Beaches now on Flickr

A black-and-white photograph of three girls lying side by side on the sand on their stomachs.

Three girls lying on the sand at a beach, Renfrew County, Ontario [PA-056012

Located near seashores, large rivers and lakes, beaches are strips of land between the low-water and high-water marks. Depending on the local geography, they are constituted of materials such as rocks, pebbles or sand.

A colour photograph of a group of boys playing on the beach at a lake.

Boys playing on the beach at Great Slave Lake, Hay River, Northwest Territories [e010976123

The aristocracy and upper classes of the United Kingdom and Europe spearheaded visits to beaches for leisure and health. The beach as a recreation destination evolved during the mid-19th century. The expansion of railways and stations made it easier for middle-class and working-class citizens to purchase cheap fares, and to travel to growing resort towns.

A black-and-white photograph of a man and a woman sitting on the sand, facing each other and smiling.

Mr. Murphy and Ms. Beck at Ingonish Beach, Nova Scotia [e008302213

During the late 19th century, North America, which was blessed with an abundance of beaches, also experienced a rapid development of these areas for recreation. This growth continued well into the 20th century, when new forms of water activities were invented, such as surfing, wake boarding and wind surfing.

A colour photograph of a woman and two men. One of the men crouches and marks the water temperature in chalk on a sign as 76 degrees Fahrenheit.

Two men and a woman chalking up the water temperature at Brackley Beach, Prince Edward Island National Park [e010949055

The popularity of beaches has not waned, and Canadians and tourists alike can enjoy the variety of amenities they offer.

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Images of Bakeries now on Flickr

Who doesn’t love bakeries? The smell of butter and sugar, the sight of all the loaves of bread, and sweet treats lined up behind glass counters are incredibly tempting.

Four glass cases packed with baked goods form a long counter. Tall wooden shelves with a mirror in the middle are lined with boxes. The floor has a checkerboard pattern.

Hunts’ bakery shop, Toronto, Ontario (PA-068155)

Bakeries can be found everywhere throughout history. Armies had field bakeries, and forts had bakeries drawn into their plans. Outdoor or communal ovens provided options to families. New immigrants started bakeries and brought with them recipes from their home countries.

Three children watch while their mother pull bread from an outdoor brick oven. A house and a field can be seen in the background.

Bread baking in an outdoor oven (e011175772)

On a residential street, a horse is pulling a wagon labeled with “Quality,” “Wonder Bakeries Limited,” and a picture of a Wonder Bread loaf.

Delivery wagon, Wonder Bakeries Limited (PA-060334)

Baking has changed immensely in the last century with factories and mechanization making large quantities of bread. But small neighbourhood bakeries still exist and are part of city landscapes. A favourite baker or a large factory can be a landmark. These photos show a story of immigration, home bakeries, small businesses, and large factories.

A wooden building with “Café Royal and Bakery” painted on it. Three waiters and four customers stand on the boardwalk in front of the building.

Café Royal & Bakery (PA-013518)

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Images of Agnes Chamberlin’s Flower Prints now on Flickr

Agnes Chamberlin (née Dunbar Moodie and previously Fitzgibbon) came from a literary family. Her mother, Susanna Moodie, and her aunt, Catharine Parr Traill, were well known for their now classic descriptions of pioneer life in Ontario, Roughing it in the Bush (by Moodie) and The Backwoods of Canada (by Parr Traill).

Two white lilies, one open, one closed, and two yellow lilies lying on a bed of green leaves.

Canadian Wild Flowers, Plate VIII (e011308817)

Chamberlin was taught to paint by her mother and, following in her family’s footsteps, applied this skill to literature. Beginning in 1863, she started producing illustrations for her aunt’s proposed book on Canadian flowers.

Canadian Wild Flowers, Plate VII (e008300821)

When Chamberlin’s first husband died, she turned this work into a way to support her family. Collaborating with her aunt, Chamberlin produced Canadian Wildflowers, an illustrated botanical book combining Parr Traill’s text with Chamberlin’s hand-coloured lithographs.

Two white lady’s slippers standing upright among large green leaves, an orange lily, a lily bud, and small blue harebells.

Canadian Wild Flowers, Plate V (e011183290)

The book was a success and praised for the accuracy of its illustrations. Four editions were published between 1868 and 1895, each with Chamberlin’s hand-coloured plates. It was one of the first large illustrated books to be printed and published completely in Canada. Following this book, Chamberlin also contributed to Parr Traill’s Studies of Plant Life and exhibited her work in Philadelphia in the United States, as well as in England and Canada.

A red trillium standing upright among large green leaves, round purple flowers, and pale purple flowers.

Canadian Wild Flowers, Plate IV (e011308814)

Following this book, Chamberlin also contributed to Parr Traill’s Studies of Plant Life and exhibited her work in Philadelphia in the United States, as well as in England and Canada.

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Images of Potatoes now on Flickr

A black-and-white photograph of a man collecting potatoes in a field and filling a basket.

A potato harvest, New Brunswick [e011176012]

Potatoes are native to South America and date back many thousands of years.

A black-and-white photograph of a man riding a potato planter pulled by two horses.

A potato planter, Leeds County, Ontario [PA-043221]

Spanish conquistadors brought back potato samples to Europe during the 1500s. However, it was not until the 1700s that views toward the tuber had changed. No longer a curiosity from South America, the potato was cultivated as a stable and ample food source. Farming of the tuber spread slowly across Europe and eventually to North America.

A black-and-white photograph of four men examining potatoes on a small conveyor belt in a barn.

Master Farmer Lewis Winterburn and three men examining potatoes on a conveyor belt during the potato harvest [e010950952]

Cultivation of potatoes occurs in every Canadian province. The largest-scale farming happens in the provinces of Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, and Alberta. The potato ranks among the top global food crops along with rice, wheat, and corn.

A black-and-white photograph of women factory workers involved in the preparation and production of potatoes.

Women working in a factory where potatoes are dehydrated, Kentville, Nova Scotia [e010962111]

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Images of Living Rooms now on Flickr

A black-and-white photograph of a living room furnished with plush chairs, paintings and a couch.

Interior of Sir William Van Horne’s residence [e003641850]

Modern living rooms have replaced the formal parlours and front rooms formerly used to greet and entertain guests.

A black-and-white photograph of man sitting on an area rug with friends. He is leaning against a couch, smoking a cigarette, and writing in a notepad.

A man sitting on the floor of a living room, leaning against a couch, smoking a cigarette and writing on a small notepad [e010968994]

Living rooms now service the full gamut of home life from entertaining guests, reading, listening to and watching audiovisual entertainment, or relaxing. Decor has also evolved to fit spartan tastes, to display artwork, or to indulge in lavish comfort.

A black-and-white photograph of a man sitting in an armchair reading a newspaper. A woman sits on a couch and sews.

J.W. (Ed) Maddocks reading a newspaper in his living room while his wife sews, Toronto, Ontario [e010962433]

A black-and-white photograph of a woman sitting on a couch reading a book beside her poodle. A man sitting at a desk next to the couch reads a magazine.

Dr. Best with his wife Margaret and poodle Dochel, Ontario [e011177240]

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Images of Microscopes and Telescopes now on Flickr

A colour photograph of a woman in a university classroom looking through a microscope.

A woman looking through a microscope during one of the science classes at Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario [e010975918]

People use microscopes to view objects that are too small to see with the naked eye. Microscope hardware is usually made up of glass lenses, metal or plastic frames for component housing, and an eyepiece. Electron microscopes use electron beams and sensors to create images on a monitor for viewing extremely small objects.

A black-and-white photograph of a man looking through a microscope designed to aid in the detection of counterfeit bills, handwriting and tickets.

A man looking through a specially designed microscope at the RCMP laboratories for detecting counterfeit bills, handwriting and gasoline coupons, Rockcliffe, Ontario [e010962125]

A black-and-white photograph of a man sitting at a table outside during the winter and looking through a telescope up into the sky.

“‘Jake’observing,” one of four photographs captioned on a page from Captain James Peters’ album, Québec, Quebec [e011156605_s2]

Telescopes enable people to see objects far away. Lenses and mirrors work together to magnify objects for viewing. A radio telescope is actually an antenna designed to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in space.

A black-and-white photograph of a man looking into the eyepiece of Victoria’s Dominion Astrophysical Observatory Telescope.

The Dominion Astrophysical Observatory Telescope, Victoria, British Columbia [e011180779]

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