Images Celebrating the Outaouais now on Flickr

The Outaouais region is steeped in history. Library and Archives Canada collections reflect this history, and remind us of the enduring importance of the people who have lived here, their economic and commercial enterprises, and the natural beauty of the region.

A colour photograph of two women and two men having a picnic in a park on the bank of a river.

Picnicking in Brébeuf Park on the Ottawa River near Hull, Québec [MIKAN 4292850]

A black-and-white photograph of a lumberman hammering the Company stamp, the letter “G,” meaning Gatineau, onto the ends of 16-foot logs.

A lumberman hammering the Company stamp “G” for Gatineau onto the ends of 16-foot logs destined for the Gatineau mills of the Canadian International Paper Co., Gatineau, Québec [MIKAN 3197680]

A black-and-white photograph of Duke Ellington standing between two women at the Standish Hall Hotel and posing for a picture.

Duke Ellington at the Standish Hall Hotel, Hull, Québec [MIKAN 3606806]

A black-and-white photograph of the Standish Hall Hotel in Hull, Quebec. A man in a hat and a trench coat is holding a case and standing on the right side of the building.

Exterior view of the Standish Hall Hotel Hull, Québec [MIKAN 3606795]

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Images of Racing now on Flickr

Race (noun) – a competition between runners, horses, vehicles, boats, etc., to see which is the fastest in covering a set course.

A black-and-white photograph of five men lined up on a road ready to start a race. Soldiers stand and watch from both sides of the road.

Relay race at track and field sports event, Whitley, England [MIKAN 3387500]

A black-and-white photograph of a man jumping up into the air between two cars, and waving a flag to start a race.

Starter Jack Williams in action on the 1/4-mile drag race at the B.C. Custom Car Association, Abbotsford, British Columbia [MIKAN 4297937]

Yes, Canadians race through all kinds of weather and situations too!

A black-and-white photograph of two girls watching a boy launch a model yacht into the water.

Model racing yacht, Sunnyside Beach, Toronto, Ontario [MIKAN 3194092]

A black-and-white photograph of eight teams pushing their canoes on from the frozen portions of a river toward open water.

Ice canoe race, Quebec City, Québec [MIKAN 4949175]

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Images of Canada Washes Up now on Flickr

The Canadian washroom, or bathroom, has its roots in medieval times. The basic toilet and sewage systems built into castles during that era evolved into modern architectural design features for homes and large buildings. Later technological advances included internal running water, piping and community sewage systems.

A black-and-white photograph of a man standing and bathing in a travelling bath of the First World War era.

Motor transport travelling bath in the Canadian part of the line. [MIKAN 3396709]

A drawn plan listing the materials needed to build a wooden latrine.

Plan of a latrine. MIKAN 3699479]

When not indoors, Canadians have improvised and innovated in cleanliness and discharging their bodily wastes as cleanly as possible. Whether for the outdoors or for journeys, the solutions are reminiscent of home.

A black-and-white photograph of a shower, bath and toilet in a train lounge car.

New lounge car, shower bath. [MIKAN 3348414]

A black-and-white photograph of a ladies’ shower room in a Canadian Pacific Railway solarium car.

Women’s shower, Canadian Pacific Railway, new solarium car. [MIKAN 3380569]

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Images of Point Pelee National Park and Pelee Island now on Flickr

A black-and-white photograph of Kathleen Hart and Dave Phipps sunbathing on the beach.

Kathleen Hart and Dave Phipps sunbathing on the beach at Point Pelee National Park, Ontario. [MIKAN 4297909]

Point Pelee National Park is located in southwestern Ontario. The park is a peninsula that extends into Lake Erie and consists of marsh and woodland that are home to diverse flora and fauna. In 1918, Point Pelee was the first national park created for conservation at the urging of birdwatchers and hunters.

A black-and-white “Plan of the Naval Reserve at Point Pelee in the Township of Mersea..."

“Plan of the Naval Reserve at Point Pelee in the Township of Mersea…,” Ontario. [MIKAN 3670979]

A black-and-white map of Point Pelee Island, Ontario.

Point Pelee Island, Ontario. [MIKAN 3670898]

Pelee Island is the largest island in Lake Erie and lies southwest of Point Pelee National Park, but is not part of the park. The island is abundant with wildlife and is an important flyway for migrating birds between Ohio and Ontario. The island also has a long history of wine making.

A black-and-white photograph of a Pelee Island wine vat now used as a water reservoir.

Pelee Island wine vat now used as a water reservoir, Pelee Island, Ontario. [MIKAN 3642953]

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Images of blacksmiths now on Flickr

Blacksmiths manipulate iron or steel to create objects, such as tools, household goods, and art. They use specific tools to hammer, bend, or cut metal heated in a forge.

A black-and-white photograph of a man hammering a piece of metal at the Jolly Blacksmith shop.

Interior of Jolly Blacksmith shop, Ottawa, Ontario [MIKAN 3265334]

Many blacksmiths travelled to Canada during the mid-17th century to help build the trading posts of the Hudson’s Bay Company and its rival, the North West Company. As settlements grew, these metalworkers working in their workshops became an important technological and industrial hub of business and trade. They honed their skills to specialize in different domains. For example, a farrier was a blacksmith who specialized in the care and trimming of horses’ hooves, including shoeing them with horseshoes they created.

A black-and-white photograph of thirteen men posing for a group picture in front of the blacksmith shop.

Blacksmith shop, Harris Camp, Peter Co., Parry Sound, Ontario [MIKAN 3300810]

A black-and-white photograph of three soldiers watching a blacksmith shoeing a horse.

Personnel of the 7th Canadian Infantry Brigade watching a blacksmith shoeing a horse, Creully, France [MIKAN 3229115]

Around the mid-19th century, blacksmiths expanded their roles and continued to offer multiple services related to ironwork into the early 20th century.

A black-and-white photograph of a man in heating a horseshoe in a forge.

Harper Rennick heating a horseshoe, Shawville, Quebec [MIKAN 4948714]

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Images of laboratories now on Flickr

A black-and-white photograph of six women working on prototype boats at Dr. Alexander Graham Bell’s laboratory.

Women workers at Dr. Alexander Graham Bell’s laboratory, Beinn Bhreagh, Baddeck, Nova Scotia [MIKAN 3193548]

A laboratory is a place where scientific and technological experiments, as well as measurements, are performed. Different types of equipment and tools may be used in a laboratory depending on the field of study, such as science, engineering or pharmaceutics.

A black-and-white photograph of a woman testing synthetic rubber in the Polymer Rubber Corporation laboratory.

Laboratory worker Isobel Futcher of St. Thomas, Ontario, tests synthetic rubber in the Polymer Rubber Corporation laboratory, Sarnia, Ontario [MIKAN 3196991]

A black-and-white photograph of a woman filling 20-cc vials with penicillin at the Connaught Laboratory.

Worker Ruth Osborne fills 20-cc vials with penicillin at the Connaught Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario [MIKAN 3197854]

Early laboratories were small, sometimes even a single room in someone’s house. Dedicated facilities for laboratory research started to appear during the First World War. However, during the Second World War, Canada’s industrial war effort increased dramatically, which contributed to the growth of “big science.” Many laboratory settings became large industrial complexes employing significant numbers of people. Funding for large-scale research projects depended on government investment or consortium partnerships.

A colour photograph of a man in a chemical mixing laboratory preparing various fluids used in developing processes at the National Film Board of Canada.

Bert Hooper, head of the chemical mixing laboratory, supervises the preparation of various fluids for developing processes at the National Film Board of Canada building, Ville Saint-Laurent, Montréal, Quebec [MIKAN 4301640]

Canada has a variety of laboratory environments that range from small to large. Some are privately funded, while others rely on government funds. There is also a mix of co-operative funding between academic institutions, private organizations and public entities.

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New additions to Rare Books album now on Flickr, 2018

Colour photograph of a row of books: left to right: Euclid’s Elementa, 1482; Milton’s Paradise Lost, 1758; Relation de ce qui s’est passé en la mission des pères de la Compagnie de Iésus …, 1651; Sophocleos Tragoediai, 1502; The Lower-Canada Watchman, 1829.

Row of books [left to right: Euclid’s Elementa, 1482; Milton’s Paradise Lost, 1758; Relation de ce qui s’est passé en la mission des pères de la Compagnie de Iésus …, 1651; Sophocleos Tragoediai, 1502; The Lower-Canada Watchman, 1829. [Filename IMG_3472]

The Rare Book Collection at Library and Archives Canada is one of the largest collections of rare Canadiana in the world. Canadiana is defined as works printed in Canada or printed outside of Canada but concerning Canada, written or illustrated by Canadians.

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Images of Tartans and Kilts now on Flickr

A colour photograph of a smiling girl wearing a tam and tartan shoulder accessory.

Betty Chan at Scottish games, Winnipeg, Manitoba. [MIKAN 4302026]

Tartan is a multicoloured cloth pattern of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands. Traditionally, tartan is made with wool, but other kinds of materials may be used. Scotland and kilts in particular are associated with tartan patterns; however, the steady immigration of Scots to Canada created a special environment for tartan in this country. Cultural events, such as Highland games across Canada, showcase the various patterns seen in kilts, jackets, blankets and clothing accessories. For less traditional clothing, these patterns are often referred to as plaid. There are unique Canadian tartans, such as the provincial and territorial patterns, most of which are registered with the Court of the Lord Lyon. This court regulates Scottish heraldry, including tartan patterns. Canada’s green, gold, red and brown tartan, known as the “maple leaf,” became an official national symbol in 2011.

A black-and-white photograph of two women at a loom. The woman sitting on the left holds a shuttle. The woman standing on the right inspects the tartan pattern and weave.

Tartan being woven, St. Ann’s, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. [MIKAN 4948510]

A black-and-white photograph of two girls who are standing and wearing tams, matching jackets and kilts.

Two girls dressed in kilts at Highland games, Antigonish, Nova Scotia. [MIKAN 4315223]

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Images of Tintype Photographs now on Flickr

Dates of major use: 1855-1860s

A framed black-and-white photograph of five women, a baby, a man and a dog on a porch posing for a family portrait.

Group of five women, a baby, a man and a dog on a porch. (MIKAN 4955139)

Inventor: Adolphe-Alexandre Martin (1853), Hamilton A. Smith (1856)

A black-and-white photograph of three women sitting on the ground posing for a portrait. The women are wearing long dresses, short coats, hats, and are holding books.

Portrait of three women sitting on the floor. (MIKAN 4958586)

A tintype is a monochromatic direct positive image that is formed on a thin metal plate covered with a black varnish. They were often hand-coloured. Tintypes can be presented in paper mounts to be slid into albums or protected in American cases under glass.

A black-and-white photograph of a man sitting, wearing a band uniform and cap with feathers. The man is holding a flugelhorn resting on his left knee.

Portrait of a man wearing a municipal band uniform and holding his flugelhorn. (MIKAN 3511014)

A black-and-white photograph of a mother, three daughters, a son and a dog posing for a family portrait.

Family portrait of a mother, three daughters, a son, and a dog. (MIKAN 3262041)

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Images of Cheese now on Flickr

Cheese making in Canada can trace its origins to the early 1600s with the introduction of European, milk-producing cattle at settlements like Quebec City. Over time, as more settlers arrived, so too did more cattle and family cheese recipes. Today Canadians benefit from two types of recipes introduced in the 17th century—the soft-ripened cheeses from France, and the harder types, such as Cheddar, from the United Kingdom.

A black-and-white photograph of a man using a hoist to lift cheese from a vat. Two other men, a girl and a boy watch from behind the vat.

Drawing cheese from vats at the Gruyer cheese factory, La Malbaie, Quebec (MIKAN 3518025)

The production of cheese stayed mainly on the family farm and saw only a few exports during the early 19th century. However, an American named Harvey Farrington convinced local farmers to sell their milk stocks to his factory, allowing him to open the first Canadian cheese factory in Norwich, Ontario, in 1864. Since Confederation, a number of small and large cheese producers and cheese-making schools have made their mark on Canadian food production.

A black-and-white photograph of two men checking the temperature of milk at a cheese factory.

Taking temperature in cheese factory, Prince Edward County, Ontario (MIKAN 3371580)

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