Radio Technology

I heard it on my radio—

The technology behind the radio allows for mass communication without using wires. Nikolai Tesla lectured on wireless communication in 1893 in St. Louis, Missouri at the World’s Fair. His theories laid the scientific groundwork for the development of the radio as we know it today.

A black-and-white photograph of Guglielmo Marconi posing on the steps of a building with 12 members of the administration of Newfoundland, Signal Hill, St. John's.

Marconi (with light hat) and members of the administration of Newfoundland, Signal Hill, St. John’s (MIKAN 3380817)

Guglielmo Marconi is the person most associated with the radio and he has ties to Canada. He tested his transmission equipment on Signal Hill, St. John’s in Newfoundland, 1901. His early successes spurred the use of radio for long distance messaging using Morse code. The technology was not able to transmit speech at the time. However, advances during and after the First World War provided both the military and civilians with access to radios that sent transmissions as recognizable speech.

A black-and-white photograph of Donald Manson, an employee of the Marconi Company sitting at a table, wearing headphones and writing on paper while listening to a radio transmission.

Donald Manson, an employee of the Marconi Company (MIKAN 3193105)

A black-and-white photograph of two women and three men, members of the R. A. Radio Acting Group, reading from a script into a microphone.

Members of the R. A. Radio Acting Group (MIKAN 4297976)

Local stations and federal agencies were created such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, and broke into the news, music, and entertainment realms from the 1920s to the 1940s. Mass media was here to stay. Radio gave way to television, and then to the internet. Despite these leaps and bounds of its technological siblings, radio technology is widely used today due to its easy access and reliability.

A black-and-white photograph of a two women listening to a radio. One woman sits in a chair, the second women stands and adjusts the station settings.

Female workers at the Dominion Arsenals plant relax and listen to a radio in their apartment, Québec, Quebec (MIKAN 3193885)

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Images of Nancy Greene now on Flickr

A black-and-white photograph of Nancy Greene, winner of a gold medal in giant slalom.

Nancy Greene, winner of gold medal in giant slalom, Winter Olympics (MIKAN 5029732)

Ms. Greene Raine is an Officer of the Order of Canada and the Order of British Columbia and a member of both Sports Halls of Fame. She was named Canada’s female athlete of the 20th century by the Canadian Press and Broadcast News. She won gold and silver medals in alpine skiing at the 1968 Grenoble Olympics and overall World Cup titles in 1967 and 1968. Her total of 14 World Cup victories (including the Olympics) is still a Canadian record. During her nine-year career she won a total of 17 Canadian Championship titles.

A black-and-white photograph of a group shot of the Canadian ski team at the Winter Olympics.

Group shot of the Canadian ski team at the Winter Olympics (MIKAN 5029774)

A black-and-white photograph of Nancy Greene during her gold medal run in giant slalom.

Nancy Greene during her gold medal run in giant slalom at the 1968 Winter Olympics (MIKAN 5029785)

A black-and-white photograph of Nancy Greene during her silver medal run in slalom.

Nancy Greene during her silver medal run in slalom at the Winter Olympics (MIKAN 5029788)

See also:

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Images of Gilmour & Hughson Forestry now on Flickr

Allan Gilmour (1775–1849) was a senior partner in the firm of Pollok, Gilmour & Co. from which numerous co-partnerships and offshoots evolved, and played a prominent part in the Scottish and Canadian lumber and shipbuilding businesses. Allan Gilmour’s brothers and nephews opened numerous branches in Canada—at Miramichi, Quebec, Montréal and elsewhere. The Bytown operation began after the opening of a Montréal partnership in 1828, which dealt in supplies for the square timber trade on the Ottawa River. In 1841, his nephew Allan Gilmour Jr. took over this operation with James Gilmour, named it Gilmour & Co., and opened the Bytown branch to procure timber and sawn lumber for the Quebec market. Eventually, lumber operations grew significantly.

A black-and-white photograph of the Gilmour and Hughson mill on the river. The mill is in the foreground with timber floating on the river and along the bank.

View of the Gilmour and Hughson mill from the water (MIKAN 5006499)

A black-and-white photograph of a man loading milled lumber onto a horse-drawn wagon. A second, full wagon is leaving the area with its driver and horses.

Men loading lumber at the Gilmour and Hughson mill (MIKAN 5006500)

In the 1870s, the branches at Miramichi, Quebec and Montréal closed, leaving the Ottawa lumber operation in the control of John Gilmour’s sons. In 1891, the company Gilmour & Hughson was formed by John Gilmour Jr. and Ward Hughson, an Albany lumberman. In 1895, the concern was incorporated (58-59 Vic., Cap. 89). In the mid-1920s, it was announced that Gilmour & Hughson Ltd. was being sold to the firm of Riordon & Co. However, Riordon & Co. went into bankruptcy and the properties owned by Gilmour & Hughson and its operations were taken over by the Gatineau Company Limited, a subsidiary of the Canadian International Paper Co.

A black-and-white photograph of the Gilmour and Hughson mill on the river. The mill is in the foreground with timber floating on the river and along the bank.

View of the Gilmour and Hughson mill from the water (MIKAN 5006499)

A black-and-white photograph of a Gilmour and Hughson logging camp during the winter. Log shelters are in the background along a line of trees. Fresh cut timber is stacked and chained in the foreground.

Gilmour and Hughson Logging Camp (MIKAN 5006507)

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Images of Boxing now on Flickr

Boxing is the sport of fighting with padded, gloved fists in a square, roped-off ring under a set number of rounds and rules.

A black-and-white photograph of two boxers fighting on the deck of the SS Justicia, surrounded by the ship’s complement of soldiers.

Canadian troops aboard the SS Justicia, en route to Liverpool, England, watch a boxing match (MIKAN 3384735)

However, the first boxers in Canada did not use gloves. Bareknuckle fisticuffs were the norm during the early 19th century, with some bouts lasting 40 rounds. Outside of the military and a few men’s clubs, boxing was not sanctioned in the provinces of Canada, as the sport did not have a great reputation for fair play or honest promotion. Respectability for the sport came slowly, and views changed during the 1890s. The popularity of the sport grew steadily during the early 20th century.

A black-and-white photograph of two soldiers boxing. One wears black trunks and the other wears white trunks. Soldiers outside the ring watch the match.

Soldiers boxing in the exhibition grounds (MIKAN 3384740)

A black-and-white photograph of middleweight boxer Edwin A. Harris (Canada) in his trunks and gloves, posing with another soldier.

Edwin A. Harris (Canada), middleweight finalist in boxing, at the Inter-Allied Games, Pershing Stadium, Paris, France (MIKAN 3384730)

Today, the Canadian Amateur Boxing Association oversees the sport in coordination with 10 provincial and three territorial boxing associations. Some athletes eventually turn to professional boxing, while others retain their amateur status with the intent to represent Canada in international events, such as the Olympics or Commonwealth Games.

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Images of Japanese-Canadians from the Second World War now on Flickr

Timeline:

December 7, 1941—Japan attacks Pearl Harbour, Hawaii, United States of America. Japanese forces also invade Hong Kong, Malaysia and surrounding areas, opening up the Pacific Front of the Second World War.

December 8, 1941—Canada invokes the War Measures Act and declares Japanese-Canadians and recent immigrants as enemy aliens to strip them of individual and property rights. Over 1,200 fishing boats owned by Japanese-Canadian fishermen are confiscated off the coast of British Columbia as a defensive measure against Japan’s war efforts on the Pacific Front.

A black-and-white photograph of six Japanese-Canadian fishing boats confiscated three days after Pearl Harbor and tied to a larger vessel.

Fishermen’s Reserve rounding up six Japanese-Canadian fishing vessels, British Columbia (MIKAN 3191747)

January 14, 1942—Canada orders the round up of Japanese-Canadian males aged 18–45 for relocation to the interior of British Columbia. Personal property, such as homes and cars are seized and sold to help pay for the camps. No one can have radios, buy gasoline, or fish during the war. People detained after the 14th are sent to internment camps in Alberta.

black-and-white photograph of three Japanese-Canadian men loading a rail car destined for an internment camp in the British Columbia interior.

Japanese-Canadian men load a train travelling to camps in the interior of British Columbia (MIKAN 3193863)

February 24, 1942—Whole-scale internment of people of Japanese descent starts. In total, 21,000 Japanese-Canadians and recent immigrants become internees at camps. Restrictions on rights and freedoms increase as the war drags on.

A black-and-white photograph of many Japanese-Canadian families at a staging area being loaded on the backs of trucks for relocation to an internment camp in the British Columbia interior.

Japanese-Canadians load into the back of trucks for relocation to camps in the interior of British Columbia (MIKAN 3193859)

September 2, 1945 to April 1, 1949—After the end of the Second World War in 1945, Japanese-Canadians are forced to remain at internment camps, or areas away from Canada’s coastal regions until 1949. There are some offers by the Canadian Government to repatriate individuals and families back to Japan, along with some exemptions on movement. Eventually all restrictions on movement are lifted. Japanese-Canadians can return to the coastal areas of British Columbia. No compensation is available for property seized or for forced internment.

A black-and-white photograph of Japanese-Canadian families buying supplies in an internment camp store in Slocan City, British Columbia, observed by a Caucasian man wearing an armband.

Japanese-Canadians buy supplies at the internment camp store, Slocan City, British Columbia (MIKAN 3193855)

September 22, 1988—Thirty-nine years of lobbying by Japanese-Canadians affected by the actions enforced under the War Measures Act during the Second World War result in an official apology and compensation package for families from the Canadian Government.

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Images of snowshoes now on Flickr

Snowshoes distribute a person’s weight over snow, enabling one to walk without sinking too deeply.

A black-and-white photograph of an unidentified First Nations woman sitting on a chair and working on the webbing of a large round snowshoe.

Aboriginal woman making snowshoes, Pointe Bleue, Quebec (MIKAN 3367092)

Traditional snowshoes are made with wooden frames and leather strips for webbing and boot bindings. Modern equivalents use metal or synthetic materials, but follow similar design characteristics to their predecessors. Early snowshoe design in North America spans the continent where regular snowfall occurs. The shapes and sizes vary dependent on the location. Snowshoes are available in round, triangular, and oval shapes, or can be very long. Each design addresses different types of snow, whether powdery, wet or icy. First Nations and Inuit communities are known for their design and use of snowshoes.

A black-and-white photograph showing six kinds of long snowshoes made with various materials and styles of webbing.

Styles of snowshoes (MIKAN 3401671)

A black-and-white photograph showing six kinds of round or oval-shaped snowshoes made with various materials and styles of webbing.

Styles of snowshoes (MIKAN 3401670)

European settlers were quick to adopt snowshoes for travel, hunting, and even military purposes. Snowshoeing clubs in Canada were started the mid-1800s for sport and leisure activities—leading the way for these unique aboriginal inventions to become a fixture in Canadian society.

A black-and-white photograph of thirteen children and their teacher posing with their snowshoes at the entry deck of a Canadian National Railway school car.

Canadian National Railway School Car, Capreol, Ontario (MIKAN 3381288)

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Victoria Cross Recipients: First World War now on Flickr

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest military decoration in the Commonwealth and takes precedence over all other medals, decorations and orders. A recognition of valour in the face of the enemy, the VC can be awarded to a person of any rank of military service and to civilians under military command. So far, 98 Canadians have been awarded the Victoria Cross, beginning with Alexander Roberts Dunn who in 1854 fought in the Battle of Balaclava in the Crimean War. The Victoria Crosses were awarded to 71 Canadian soldiers during the First World War, and 16 were awarded during the Second World War. The remaining VCs were awarded to Canadians for the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (in which William Hall of Nova Scotia became the first-ever black recipient of the VC) and the South African War (1899–1902).

In 1993, the Canadian Victoria Cross was adopted in place of the British VC. The medal is identical to the British VC but the inscription is in Latin—Pro Valore—a linguistic ancestor to both English and French. The Canadian Victoria Cross has yet to be awarded.

A black-and-white image of Lance-Corporal F. Fisher.

Lance-Corporal F. Fisher, April 23, 1915 (MIKAN 3215642)

A black-and-white photograph of Lieutenant George Burdon McKean.

Lieutenant George Burdon McKean, April 27-28, 1918 (MIKAN 3218939)

A black-and-white photograph of Sergeant Alexander Picton Brereton.

Sergeant Alexander Picton Brereton, August 9, 1918 (MIKAN 3213059)

A black-and-white photograph of Sergeant Hugh Cairns.

Sergeant Hugh Cairns, November 1, 1918 (MIKAN 3191892)

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“Handle with Care, Fragile” now on Flickr

Circa 1981 –  Handle with Care, Fragile: A Guide to the Preservation of Archival Materials

“Improper handling is a major factor in the deterioration of archival documents. During the summer of 1976, the Archives Branch Conservation Committee attempted to illustrate techniques for the correct handling of archival materials through a photographic exhibition entitled HANDLE WITH CARE – FRAGILE – AVEC SOIN. The booklet resulting from that exhibition is intended to demonstrate, in a manner both pointed and humorous, these handling techniques. Only the most common archival media has been used as examples; similarly, only the most obvious causes of damage have been illustrated. We hope that this booklet will promote an appreciation of the fact that everyone who handles archival materials shares a responsibility towards our heritage.”

Wilfred I. Smith, Dominion Archivist

A black-and-white photograph displaying the improper and proper ways to remove archival material from a box. The improper manner shows a person dressed as a gorilla forcibly pulling the documents out. The proper manner depicts a female researcher carefully removing the documents.

Removal of Material from Boxes, Image 005 (AMICUS 23668326)

A black-and-white photograph displaying improper and proper research etiquette. The improper manner shows a person dressed as a gorilla eating a banana near the documents, with open beverages close by. The proper manner depicts a female researcher with no open food or drink near the documents.

Researcher Etiquette, Image 006 (AMICUS 23668326)

A black-and-white photograph displaying the improper and proper ways to handle archival documents. The improper manner shows a person dressed as a gorilla leaving fingerprints on documents after handling them without wearing white cotton gloves. The proper manner depicts a female researcher wearing white cotton gloves to handle the documents.

Holding Documents While Reading Them, Image 014 (AMICUS 23668326)

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Images of Island Life now on Flickr

Islands are portions of land surrounded by water, and Canada has an abundance of them. However, the exact number in the country has not been established. Of the many thousands of islands in Canada only a few hundred are significantly populated. The most densely populated island is the Island of Montreal, with approximately 1.75 million people. Whether situated in rugged, rural settings or in more densley populated urban environments, whether surrounded by fresh water or sea water, island communities throughout Canada continue to grow and evolve.

A black-and-white photograph of an unidentified Inuit family of eight people posing for a group portrait. From left to right: boy, woman, girl, woman, boy, girl, girl, woman.

Mackenzie Inuit family on Banks Island, Northwest Territories (MIKAN 3376397)

A black-and-white photograph of Eliza Campbell examining a lighthouse lamp.

Ms. Eliza Campbell, Scatarie Island light keeper, Nova Scotia (MIKAN 4949728)

A black-and-white photograph of a park and playground. There are two swing-sets and a teeter-totter. Boys and girls play on the equipment under the supervision of some adults.

Park and playground, St. George’s Island, Calgary, Alberta (MIKAN 3385072)

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Images of Turkeys now on Flickr

Turkeys are large birds native to North America. The domestic turkey, also known as the wild turkey, is found from Canada to the midwestern and eastern United States, and in parts of Mexico. The ocellated turkey, which is smaller than the domestic turkey, inhabits the southeastern portion of Mexico and small areas of Central America. Males are typically larger and more colourful than females. The male sports a snood (a distinct fleshy proturberance), which hangs from the top of its beak. Because of their large size, domestic turkeys are hunted and raised for their meat. Many Canadians eat turkey on special occasions, such as Thanksgiving or Christmas.

A black-and-white close-up photograph of a male turkey.

A male turkey (MIKAN 4949749)

A black-and-white photograph of a young girl sitting on top of a bridled male turkey.

“I would like to turkey trot with you” (MIKAN 3259488)

A black-and-white photograph of eight turkeys roosting on a horse-drawn disc harrow, with two turkeys on the ground behind it.

Turkeys on a horse-drawn disc harrow, Radisson, Saskatchewan (MIKAN 3361253)

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