Images of Railway Stations now on Flickr

A black-and-white photograph of the exterior of an Intercolonial Railway station. A train is parked to the left, and a group of people stand on the platform, Pictou, Nova Scotia.

Intercolonial Railway station, Pictou, Nova Scotia [PA-029397]

At one time there were approximately 1,300 railway stations across Canada, which included everything from grand urban stations to small flag stops found in remote areas and in-between cities.

A black-and-white photograph of a group of immigrants on the platform of Union Station, Toronto, Ontario.

Arrival of immigrants at Union Station, Toronto, Ontario [C-047042]

Railway stations were the first buildings passengers stepped into when they arrived or the last building they occupied when they left a town by train. A station serves a variety of purposes: it is the central community hub bringing people together, and it operates as one of the main connections to surrounding areas.

A black-and-white photograph of five men with their baggage, standing outside a small Canadian Pacific Railway station, Leanchoil, British Columbia.

Canadian Pacific Railway station, Leanchoil, British Columbia [PA-023198]

Railway companies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, such as the Canadian National Railway and the Canadian Pacific Railway, designed and constructed attractive stations with diverse and distinctive architecture.

A black-and-white photograph of a trolley car, and horses and carriages outside Windsor Station, Montréal, Quebec.

Windsor Station, Montréal, Quebec [PA-008678]

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Images of Dolls now on Flickr

A colour postcard depicting a doll, a stuffed bear, and a cat in a basket.

Loving Christmas Greeting postcard [e008299729]

Dolls may be figures of humans, or sometimes animals. They have been used in magic rituals, for religious ceremonies, and as toys for children. Dolls are common across countries, cultures and eras.

Indigenous communities in Canada can trace doll making back many generations. The main differences between them are the materials used, including fur, wood, leather or dried materials. Colonial settlers brought dolls with them from china, cloth and leather. Canadian retailers such as Eaton’s sold imported and locally made dolls from 1900 to 1994, and other retailers continue to sell dolls today.

A black-and-white photograph of a woman helping a young child wearing leg braces to walk using parallel bars. A small doll is located at the end of the bars as a focal point for the child.

Mrs. E. Marr, physiotherapist, with Gifford, 2-1/2 years old, at the walking bars in the polio clinic at the Sudbury General Hospital, Ontario [e011175909]

A black-and-white photograph of a boy and a girl holding and examining three dolls.

Children examine Mrs. Betsy Howard’s dolls outside her roadside workshop, Nanoose Bay, British Columbia [e011176293]

The Canadian doll industry blossomed during the early 1910s and into the 1930s. It competed with toy companies in the United States, as well as others around the world. During this time, companies such as the Dominion Toy Company, Commercial Toy and the Bisco Doll Company closed for various competitive reasons. The longest-lasting domestic manufacturer was The Reliable Toy Company, which eventually ended production in the 1990s. New materials to make dolls, such as plastic and vinyl, appeared between the 1930s and 1950s. These are still used now to make dolls, for toys or for art.

A black-and-white photograph of a woman brushing a doll’s hair. The doll’s head is mounted on a wooden peg.

A doll’s head [e011176357]

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Images of Parking now on Flickr

A black-and-white photograph of a double-headed parking meter on a street. In the background there are parked cars and a passing horse-drawn cart.

A horse-drawn carriage passes a double-headed parking meter, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island [e011176837]

The term “park” has its origins in Middle English, Old French, German and Latin. Its original use referred to land used by royalty to keep their game animals safe. “Park” was even used by the military to mean an area where vehicles, supplies and weapons were stored.

Today, the verb form of “park” has a different meaning: a driver stops a vehicle and leaves it temporarily in a “parking lot” or on the side of the road.

A black-and-white photograph of a tree-lined street with a long row of cars parked at an angle along the curbside.

Wellington Street parking area, Ottawa, Ontario [PA-034203]

If you live in a large urban setting, parking is easier said than done, and consumes many commuters’ time! It sometimes seems that there are more vehicles than parking spots in a city.

A black-and-white photograph of a large parking lot filled to capacity at the Canadian National Exhibition in Toronto.

Parking area at the Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto, Ontario [PA-052987]

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Images of sleep and beds now on Flickr

A black-and-white photograph of a single bed and furnishings at the Coligny Ladies’ College in Ottawa.

Bedroom at Coligny Ladies’ College on the southwest corner of Albert and Bay streets in Ottawa, Ontario [PA-027701]

Sleep is a part of everyone’s life.

A black-and-white photograph of a mother tucking her two sons into bed.

Mrs. Jack Wright tucking her two sons, Ralph and David, into bed at the end of the day, Toronto, Ontario [e000761767]

Human sleep patterns vary, even if our need for sleep does not. People go through great effort to make sleep more comfortable and safer. We even try to sleep more or less, which in turns affects our minds and bodies.

A black-and-white photograph of a man putting his slippers on before getting up from bed.

Major J.J. Busse getting out of bed at Fixed Team Headquarters in Samneua [Xam Neua/Sam Neua], Laos [e010956418]

Ideas about sleep differ from culture to culture, but sleep continually appears in our artwork, photographs and audiovisual materials.

A black-and-white sketch of four men in different sleeping positions.

Sleeping Deputies [e010958639]

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New podcast! Check out our latest episode, “The Battlefield Art of Mary Riter Hamilton”

Our latest podcast episode is now available. Check out “The Battlefield Art of Mary Riter Hamilton.”

Colour image of a painting depicting two gun emplacements at the edge of a burnt out forest. In the foreground, there are two graves with white crosses. At the bottom-left of the painting is a signature and year: Mary Riter Hamilton 1919.

Gun Emplacements, Farbus Wood, Vimy Ridge [e000000656]

What drove a successful artist from a comfortable life in Canada to one of hardship in the battlefields of France and Belgium after the First World War? From 1919 to 1922, Mary Riter Hamilton undertook a “special mission” for The War Amps to document the scarred landscape where Canadian soldiers had fought and died.

Her canvases capture the devastation of war but also signs of hope and renewal. At great cost to her health, this artist created one of the few authentic collections of paintings of war-torn Europe. She considered her work to be a gift to Canada. She donated the majority of the collection of paintings to the Public Archives of Canada, now Library and Archives Canada, in 1926.

We sit down with retired assistant professor of history at the University of Manitoba, Kathryn Young, and Dr. Sarah McKinnon, former vice-president at the Ontario College of Art and Design, and former curator at the University of Manitoba.

To view images associated with this podcast, here’s a direct link to our Flickr album

Subscribe to our podcast episodes using RSS, iTunes or Google Play, or just tune in at Podcast–Discover Library and Archives Canada: Your History, Your Documentary Heritage.

For more information, please contact us at bac.balados-podcasts.lac@canada.ca.

Images of Maple Syrup now on Flickr

Maple syrup is made by boiling down or reducing sap collected from sugar maple, red maple or black maple trees. It is a sweet condiment unique to North America and enjoyed worldwide. The First Nations communities of southeastern Canada and northeastern United States were the first people to collect maple sap and discover its many benefits.

A black-and-white photograph of two men inside a log building boiling down maple sap in trough-like metal containers.

Boiling down maple sap inside a sugar house [e010862109]

First Nations communities taught British and French settlers how to collect sap and make maple syrup. Europeans incorporated the use of iron or copper pots, making it easier to boil the sap longer to create syrup with a thicker consistency.

A black-and-white photograph of Jerry Boyce in a wooded lot of maple trees pouring sap from a collection bucket into a larger can.

Jerry Boyce pouring maple sap from a collection bucket into a larger can [e011176188]

A black-and-white photograph of a farmer delivering large cans of maple syrup by wagon to a train car for shipping. Another man holding a clipboard takes an inventory of the items.

Delivering large cans of maple syrup for shipment by train [e010860379]

Today, Canada is the leading producer and exporter of maple syrup and related maple products, commanding over 70 percent of the global market for these commodities. The province of Quebec alone produces more than 90 percent of Canada’s maple syrup quota.

A black-and-white photograph of a young boy next to a large maple tree taking a sip of sap from a collection bucket.

A young boy takes a sip from a bucket of maple sap [e011177458]

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Images of Donkeys and Mules now on Flickr

A black-and-white photograph of soldiers marching on a road. A soldier riding in a cart, pulled by a donkey, passes the group.

Canadian infantrymen on the march near Modica, Italy [PA-163669]

Donkeys are members of the equid family, which includes horses and zebras. They have similar physical attributes to their cousins, but tend to be stockier with floppy ears. Domesticated donkeys are bred for work all over the world to carry packs or pull carts. They have even become family pets.

A black-and-white photograph of soldier trying to coax two pack mules to move.

« Stubborn as a Mule” [PA-001202]

In addition to domesticated donkeys, there are also feral and wild types that vary in size, and they can all breed among themselves. This includes horses and zebras! When a male donkey mates with a female horse, their offspring results in what we call a “mule.” A male horse and female donkey pairing results in “hinny.”

A black-and-white photograph of a soldier standing on a road holding the reins to his mare (horse) and its foal (mule).

Canadian soldier from the 20th Battery, Canadian Field Artilery stands with “Vimy” the foal and its mother, Vimy Ridge, France [PA-001616]

These hybrids are mostly sterile and cannot produce offspring. However, they inherit many of their parents’ traits and are used for work around the world.

A black-and-white photograph of two donkeys standing in an enclosed yard.

Alice E. Isaacson’s birthplace, Bray, Ireland [e007151455]

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Images of Pigeons now on Flickr

The pigeon family is large and consists of approximately 300 species. Only three species now breed in Canada.

A black-and-white photograph of a little girl (Ann MacDonald) standing next to a door looking at a pigeon on the sidewalk.

Ann MacDonald with a pigeon in front of a building [e010966947]

The bird commonly referred to as a “pigeon” is the rock dove, or rock pigeon. It lives in cities and towns and on farmland. The mourning dove lives in open groves and woods. The band-tailed pigeon also inhabits open woods. A fourth species, the passenger pigeon, was hunted into extinction at the end of the 19th century.

A watercolour painting of large nets set up in the woods to catch passenger pigeons.

Passenger Pigeon Net, St. Anne’s, Lower Canada [C-012539k]

Love them or hate them, pigeons were considered companions in ancient times, and they were the first birds to be domesticated. During the First World War and the Second World War, pigeons were used to carry messages for the military.

A black-and-white photograph of a carrier pigeon held in a bush pilot’s hands.

Carrier pigeon used for emergency communication by bush pilots [e006079072]

A black-and-white photograph of two soldiers in a trench watering their carrier pigeons in a portable carrier with a canteen.

Canadian pigeon carriers watering the birds in captured German trenches on Hill 70, Lens, France [PA-001686]

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Images of Squirrels now on Flickr

There are twenty-two squirrel species found across Canada in every province and territory. Six species live in trees while the other sixteen live on the ground.

A colour print depicting a Hudson’s Bay squirrel and a Chickaree Red squirrel foraging for food amongst trees branches.

Hudson’s Bay Squirrel, Chickaree Red Squirrel [e002291722]


A black-and-white photograph of a squirrel with a butternut in its mouth exiting a building from an open window.

Squirrel stealing a butternut from a pantry, Ottawa, Ontario [PA-133432]

Views on theses rodents vary. Some people consider them pests as they damage gardens and crops; others point to their role in forest regeneration as forgotten seed caches may germinate in spring.

A black-and-white photograph of a girl and a squirrel on her left shoulder.

Rose Sobkow with a squirrel on her shoulder [e011177232]


A black-and-white photograph of two girls standing next to a tree in winter. One of the girls feeds a squirrel clinging to the trunk.

Two girls feeding a black squirrel [PA-070989]

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Images of Working Dogs now on Flickr

Working dogs learn and perform tasks to support and sometimes amuse their owners.

A black-and-white photograph of a boy with his dog harnessed to a two-wheeled cart. The cart is loaded with dried cod.

Dog cart loaded with cod “Ready for market,” Gaspé, Quebec [e010861908]

A black-and-white photograph of a circus dog jumping from a platform on a tall pole. Four men below hold a large blanket to catch the falling dog.

Professor Gentry’s diving dog, Toronto Industrial Exhibition, Ontario [PA-068465]

Regardless of whether they are purebreds or mixed breeds, these dogs are trained to do a variety of jobs very well. Some of the jobs include pulling carts and sleds, herding livestock, hunting, as well as providing valued services to the community such as policing, search and rescue, therapy, and guarding homes, businesses and buildings.

A black-and-white photograph of 11 dogs pulling a sled through the snow. Two men are supporting and balancing the weight of a large canoe on the sled.

A dog team on Gordon Bay, Hudson Strait, Nunavut [PA-121599]

A black-and-white photograph of a man with his four dogs wearing pack harnesses.

Dogs carrying packs ready for the trail, Valley of the Firth River, Yukon [PA-044646]

The breed chosen often depends on what the job requires; however, most dogs share common canine traits of strength, discipline, intelligence and loyalty.

A black-and-white photograph of a dog harnessed to a small two-wheeled passenger cart. A girl sits on the cart and holds the reins to her dog.

A girl driving a cart at Harvey’s, Toronto, Ontario [PA-069924]

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